Integration is considered to be the most effective way to realise the potential of migration in the European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals, reinforcing the importance given to integration policies in previous documents, such as the Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU, adopted by the Justice and Home Affairs Council in November 2004 and the subsequent Common Agenda for Integration adopted by the Commission in 2005 . Moreover, integration appears as one of the first goals identified in the European.
In any case, plural societies need to develop a consistent knowledge base on integration, including not only the analysis of public policies in the field, but also paying special attention to social processes and potential roles for private actors. In this sense, integration is a substantial tool to achieve social cohesion in plural societies, where the respect and promotion of diversity as a parallel and guiding principle is also derived from a democratic and human rights-based perspective.
In this respect, integration is understood as a two-way process based on mutual accommodation by all immigrants and host societies of member states. This implies the need for active participation and open attitudes by both sides of immigration societies. On the one hand, it is the responsibility of the host society to ensure the right of immigrants and newcomers to full participation in the economic, social, cultural and political life of the country, ensuring the protection of these rights to the highest possible degree, within the framework of European common values and the international human rights standards in force. On the other hand, it is the responsibility of migrants and their communities to respect common values and European standards and to actively contribute, as far as reasonably possible, to the wellbeing and development of European societies .
When conceptualizing integration, Pennix goes beyond the accommodation process stressing the need for migrants to be accepted as part of society, namely in three analytically distinct dimensions: the legal-political one, the socio-economic one and the cultural/religious dimension . In the context of the present research and training programme, we are considering processes and policies concerning the integration of foreign nationals within EU countries, including not only third-country nationals, but also EU citizens living in other member states, focusing specifically on groups that face difficulties with integration, such as Roma citizens.